Paediatric Cardiac Surgery is a sub-speciality of Paediatric Cardiology and deals with surgical procedures to treat Congenital Heart diseases. The congenital heart defects or birth defects are structural issues in heart and may be treated with a catheter procedure or a minimal invasive surgery. However, there are some conditions where open heart surgery is also required, usually in case of a heart transplant.
Aakash Healthcare Super Speciality Hospital has an exclusive team of Paediatric Cardiac surgery which is dedicatedly working on treating various heart defects among children upto the age of 18 years. We treat all types of complex and simple heart defects in children. Our experts are highly-skilled and competent in taking care of congenital heart defects like:
Patent Ductus Arteriosus or PDA: In this condition, there is abnormal flow of blood between the aorta and pulmonary artery. This condition is not present during pregnancy and may occur soon after the birth. The aorta and pulmonary arteries are connected by a blood vessel called ductusarteriosus which is a part of the blood fetal blood circulation and remain open. However, it closes on its own immediately after the birth or in few days. In some cases, the ductusarteriosus do not closes on its own and remain open resulting in mixing of pure and impure blood. This condition needs immediate attention and can be treated through surgical procedure.
The procedure to correct Patent DuctusArteriosus
It is a minimal invasive surgical procedure where a small incision is made by a surgeon in the groin from where a catheter is inserted into the artery of the leg. The catheter is then guided towards the heart. Once the catheter is reached a small metal coil is passed through it into the ductusarteriosus artery of the ailing child blocking the blood flow.
Hole in heart or Septal Defect
A hole in heart is referred to a condition when there is a hole in the septum wall of the heart which separated the left and right chambers of the heart and prevents the mixing of pure and impure blood. There can be two types of septal defects:
- ArtrialSeptal Defect (ASD): In this condition, there is a hole in the septum separating the upper chambers of the heart.
- Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD): VSD refers to hole in septum separating lower chambers of the wall.
The procedure to correct Septal Defect or hole in the heart
There are two types of septal defects, Atrial Septal defect and Ventricular Septal defect. Both the defect can be corrected with the help of minimal invasive surgery where a surgeon makes a small incision to insert a wire which is guided towards the heart. An umbrella shell ‘clamshell’ is then placed on both side of the septum wall patching the hole. However, in some cases an open heart surgery is also conducted.
Narrowed Valves: Valves in a heart guides the normal flow of blood. Sometimes, these valves can experience defects like Stenosis (thickening of valve),Artresia (no passage is formed in valve through which blood can pass) and Regurgitation (leakage in valve).
The procedure to correct Narrowed Valves
In order to broaden the passage, the surgeon will cut the narrow section and will attach a graft. A surgeon, may also use flap method to treat the narrowed valve by taking a patch from left subclavian artery, the procedure is also known as subclavian flap.
Tetralogy of Fallot: It is an amalgamation of four defects and is a very rare and complex heart condition in young children. A child suffering from tetralogy of fallot may experience a large VSD, a deformed aorta, thickening of heart muscle and pulmonary valve stenosis. However, this condition can be treated through an open heart surgery. A child may have to undergo lifelong drug therapy as well.
The procedure to treat Tetralogy of Fallot Disease
It is a complex and an open heart surgery and is conducted on children between the age of 6 month to 2 years. However, if a child is week and surgery is not possible, then a shunt procedure is done until the child is ready for the surgery. Once the child is ready for surgery all the four anomalies are treated during the surgery. The surgeons will begin with patching the ventricular septal defect followed by removal of thickened muscle and also implants a patch on the right ventricle and main pulmonary artery which normalise the blood flow to the lungs.
Symptoms of congenital heart diseases in children
- Low birth weight
- Chest Pain
- Feeding difficulties or child refusing to take mother feed
- Bluish lips, skin, finger and toes
- Fast breathing
- Heart murmurs
- Swelling in legs, abdomens, veins or necks
- Formation of fluid or blood in lungs